Sunday, January 28, 2007

Whittington Motte, Whittington


Here are the latest photos of the motte and bailey castle beneath the church at Whittington in Lancashire.

The photo above, shows the motte from the summit of the gentle rise upon which the church is built. This is looking West, with the church to my back.

Another view of the motte, this time looking East towards the church. The motte is more pronounced from this view. It's tempting to see the footpath that runs around the bottom of the hill here (from left to right) as the ditch, though I think that any defensive ditches and banks were further down the hill.

A great view of the motte with the church built over what is thought to have been the bailey area. All traces of this area of the castle, along with ditches and banks seems to have been obliterated over the years.

A view of the motte from the path leading to the church porch. The motte can be seen steeply disappearing into the fields below to the left of the photo.

Click on any of these images for a full screen view.

Castle Mound, Melling

Castle Mound

Here are some new photos of the motte and bailey remains in the grounds of the vicarage behind St Wilfreds

The motte can just about be seen through the trees as you enter the church yard.

The motte has been badly damaged by landscape gardening, and the bailey has probably been incorporated into the garden and the churchyard. No evidence can be seen today of the ditches and ramparts that would have formed parts of the defences.

Castle Stedes, Hornby

Castle Stead

Here are some new photos of the earthworks at Hornby (taken January 2009)

The first photo (above) shows the motte in the centre, the bailey to the right, and the steep drop to the river to the left.

The photo above, shows the motte in the centre, the bailey to the left, and the bank of the bailey defences in the foreground. The ditch, surrounding the motte, can still just about be seen.

The photo above, shows the ditch in front of the bailey embankment. The artificial (modern) bridge over the deep ditch can be seen at the top left of the photo. The motte lays out of sight to the right of the photo.

This large panoramic view of the earthworks, shows the motte at the right of the photo, the bailey defensive embankments to the left, and the artificial (modern) land bridge to the left of the smaller tree.

To see these photos full screen, just click on them. They may take a few moments to load as they're quite big.

Cockpit, Kirkby Lonsdale

Kirkby Lonsdale

Here are some new photos of the remains of the motte and bailey castle at Kirkby Lonsdale.

The above photo shows the motte looking North. From this angle, the remains look in good condition.

However.....looking East, the damage to the motte is plain to be. The angle of slope on the right hand side of the motte indicates significant quarrying at some stage.

Castle Hill, Burton in Lonsdale

Castle Hill
Burton in Lonsdale
North Yorkshire

Here are some more photos of the spectacular motte and bailey castle at Burton in Lonsdale.

The photo above, shows the banks of the Western bailey (the larger of the two) The ditch can just about be seen, to the left of the photo, with the bank indicating the Western extremity of the bailey to the right.

The photo above, was taken from the church yard of All Saints in the village. Even from such a low vantage point, the massive motte can still be seen.

A great view of the motte and the church from the Southern banks of the River Greta. Looking North, this view demonstrates the great defensive point upon which this castle was built.

Another view of the motte from across the River Greta.

This view is taken from the Westerly most point of the larger of the two baileys. The ditches and banks are very well preserved here.

The photo above, clearly shows the largest of the two baileys in the foreground.

The motte and bailey castle at Burton In Lonsdale, was built as part of a line of defences along the Lune valley, along with a collection of earthwork castles rivaling those of the Welsh borders, and including Melling, Arkholme, Whittington (to which Castle Hill at Burton in Lonsdale was a subsidiary), Hornby, Halton and Lancaster. There is documentary evidence to suggest that the castle here was built to provide a line of supply on the route north to the recently established Norman castle at Carlisle, but whilst Carlisle undoubtedly saw a large amount of military action, it's unlikely that Burton in Lonsdale, being so far south, saw any 'action' at all. Indeed, records show that the castle was probably only manned in 1130, when the garrison consisted of a single knight, around 10 sergeants, a porter and a night watchman (thanks to North Craven Heritage for this information) This record of the garrison, and the costs incurred, are the earliest mention of a castle in the village.

Like Halton further south, the manor of Burton was originally in the hands of Earl Tostig, until his death at the battle of Stamford Bridge on the 25th of September 1066. The Normans were quick to consolidate their control over these areas after their October invasion, with motte and bailey castles being built all along the line of the River Lune. The powerful de Mowbray family controlled the area immediately surrounding Burton in Lonsdale, but had estates elsewhere too. The castle was most likely where the de Mowbrays administered their estates from, and would have been an imposing focal point for the local communities.

In the latter years of the 1290's, the de Mowbrays had less need for large estates, and sold huge areas to three powerful Yorkshire families: the Crepping, Youckflett and de Rypon families. It is believed that the castle was out of use and probably dismantled with only the earthworks surviving, sometime between 1322 and 1369.

Chapel Hill, Arkholme

Chapel Hill

New photos of the motte and bailey in the grounds of St John the Baptist.

The above photo clearly shows the size of the motte next to the church. The bailey is thought to be the space in the foreground and also beneath the church buildings.

The above photo shows the motte to the right of the church between the road and the building. The ditches providing protection to the site are now thought to lie beneath the roadway.

Thurland Castle, nr Kirkby Lonsdale

Thurland Castle
nr Kirkby Lonsdale

Travelling North on the A683 and about a mile outside Tunstall, Thurland Castle sits hidden amongst the trees. Now a private residence, the castle remains are usually hidden, but during the winter months when the trees are bare of their leaves, a tantalising glimpse of the castle can be seen from the road. The best view is to be had immediately to the North of the gatehouse on the right hand side of the road. From here the building can be safely viewed.

Above. Thurland Castle (old postcard in my collection)

Above. Old ground plan of the castle.

Above. The very restricted view of the castle from the side of the A683.

The castle was built in the 14th century, with license to crenellate granted by Henry IV in 1402. All that survives of the original structure now, is the moat and some masonry from the North face of the South East range. From these remains, a tower can still be seen. The work carried out when the crenellation license was granted, was done by Sir Thomas Tunstall. An ogivall headed (pointed arch) doorway can still be seen in the building facing the court....apparently evidence that the building contains masonry from a building predating the 1402 work. In around 1605, the castle was sold to John Girlington by Thomas Tunstall. The castle was captured and partially destroyed by Parliamentarian forces in 1643.

Above. The gatehouse. (Post card in my personal collection.)

The remains of the castle were converted into a country residence in 1809 and altered in 1829. The castle was then gutted by fire in 1876. From 1879 to 1885, Lancaster architects Paley and Austin were employed to rebuild and partially redesign the castle, and most of what is seen today is a result of their work. More recently, the castle has been split into private residences. As a result of this latest redevelopment, the castle is private property and no access can be gained to the grounds.

Sunday, January 21, 2007

Kendal Castle, Castle Hill, Kendal

Kendal Castle,
Castle Hill,

Kendal Castle, a history.

1066 was an precarious year for the English. The country went through three kings, and by the morning of October 15th 1066, found itself under Norman rule. Edward the Confessor (ruled since 1042), had previously stated that Harold, the Earl of Wessex, would be king when he died. The crown passed to Harold in January of 1066 when Edward finally died. Nine months later, Harold, after defeating his brother Tostig, and the Norwegian forces of King Harald Hardrada at the battle of Stamford Bridge, had to march his army south to meet the threat of an invasion from the Normans headed by William, Duke of Normandy. On the 14th of October, Harold marched his army onto the battle field at Hastings, to face the fresh Norman invasion force. In the ensuing battle, Harold and his brothers died, and the country fell under Norman rule. William was crowned King on Christmas day 1066 finishing off this turbulent year.

Tinted photo of Kendal Castle. (From personal collection)

As soon as William had the country at his feet, he set about consolidating his rule by rewarding his generals and those who had supported him with their military might. One of those who was richly rewarded in lands and titles was Ivo de Taillebois. Ivo was granted great swathes of land throughout the Northern reaches of England; in Lancashire, Yorkshire and Cumbria. It’s likely that Ivo was responsible for building Kendal’s first castle….the motte and bailey at the top of Beast Banks, in around 1092. This fortification is, according to Kendal's antiquarians, to have been built on the site of a Roman signal station, and overlooks the town from the West. With the lands, came the title of (First) Baron of Kentdale. Ivo also has connections with Kirkby Lonsdale’s motte and bailey castle on Ruskin’s Brow, and other towns right across the North of England.

Above. The motte and bailey castle at Kirkby Lonsdale

At some point between 1183 and 1241, building commenced on the site at the top of Castle Hill. Whatever the early fortification looked like, it eventually evolved into the castle, or the remains, that we see today. There may have been some overlap between the existence of the two castles. It’s unlikely that the motte and bailey of Castle Howe was directly replaced by Kendal Castle…..more likely that the two existed side by side for some period of time. Castle Howe was probably the baronial centre of Kirkland or Cherchebi as it was previously known, the earliest part of Kendal that had grown up around the parish church before the Norman invasion, with Kendal Castle as the baronial centre of the post-Norman part of the town referred to as Kirkby Kendale. At some point however, Castle Howe fell out of use, and the building, wooden or stone disappeared. Kendal Castle, in all its magnificent glory, stood over the town, a symbol of dynastic power and control. In around 1189, so local tradition has it, a Scottish army led by Duncan, Earl of Fife,  attacked and laid waste to much of the town, and, pursuing the population into the parish church in Kirkland, proceeded to massacre those seeking refuge there. There is very little, if any evidence of this attack on Kendal, and the story is mirrored by a similar tale of an attacking army led by Duncan on the Northumberland town of Warkworth.

Kendal Castle with grazing cattle. (From personal collection)

Kendal castle was probably built by Gilbert Fitz Reinfred, Baron of Kendal, more than likely as a symbolic and impressive administrative centre to his estates. Gilbert was imprisoned after rebelling against King John, and documents tell us that the castle in Kendal was surrendered to the king as part of the ransom demanded for this transgression. Some twenty five years later, in 1241, the castle was returned to Gilbert’s son, William de Lancaster. These documented events are usually taken to be the first reference to the new castle in Kendal. From here on in, the castle appears to have become the centre of the town’s fluctuating fortunes for the next few hundred years.

The owners of Kendal Castle:

Until 1272 Lancaster Barons of Kendal
1272 to 1390 de Roos\de Ros\de Ross (various spellings) Barons of Kendal
1390 to 1574 Parr family (Barons of Kendal) (forfeited to the crown 1571 to 1572)
1574 to 1667 Various Crown grantees
1667 to 1723 Anderton family (forfeited to the crown 1716 to 1723)
1723 to 1765 Huggins family
1765 to 1841 Dowker family
1841 to 1854 William Thompson MP
1854 to 1894 Thomas Earl of Bective
1894 to 1897 Lady Henry Cavendish-Bentinck
1897 to 1974 Kendal Corporation
1974 to now South Lakeland District Council.

The Barons of Kendal:

Gilbert Fitz Reinfred 1184 to 1220
Married to Helwise, daughter of William de Lancaster II.

William de Lancaster 1220 to 1246
Son of Gilbert Fitz Reinfred. Died without an heir, so the title of Baron passed to Peter de Brus the younger brother of Helwise.

Peter de Brus 1246 to 1272
Peter died without an heir, so the title of Baron passed to his sister Margaret de Brus.

Robert Ross Werke 1272 to 1274
Robert was married to Margaret de Brus.

Margaret de Brus 1274 to 1297
The title subsequently passed to her son William de Ross.

Williams de Ross 1297 to 1310

Elizabeth de Ross 1310 to 1328
Elizabeth held the Barony in Dower (the provision made by a husband for his widow)

Thomas de Ross 1328 to 1390
Thomas was the son of William de Ross. His granddaughter, Elizabeth, married William Parr.

William Parr 1390 to 1404
After William died, the title Baron passed to his son John.

John Parr 1404 to 1407

Agnes Parr 1407 to 1426
Agnes was John Parr’s wife. She held the Barony in Dower until her son succeeded.

Thomas Parr 1426 to 1461
Thomas was the son of John Parr. When he died, the title Baron passed to his son William.

Sir William Parr 1461 to 1484
When William died, the Barony passed to his wife Elizabeth.

Elizabeth Parr 1484 to 1500
When Elizabeth died, the title Baron passed to her son Thomas.

Sir Thomas Parr 1500 to 1519
Thomas was the son of Sir William Parr. When he died, the title Baron passed to his wife Maude.
Maude Parr 1519 to 1526

Sir William Parr 1526 to 1571
Sir William was also the Earl of Essex and the Marquis of Northampton. He was the last Baron of Kendal, and brother to Katherine Parr, the last wife of Henry VIII.

The last 181 years of the existence of the Barony of Kendal, are dominated by the famous name of the Parrs. The Parr family had graced themselves by supporting the Yorkist king Henry VI during the Wars of the Roses. William Parr was a noted peace negotiator, employed by Edward to secure peace between the English crown and King James II of Scotland, and John Parr was Sheriff of Westmorland. In 1471 the two brothers held the Barony of Kendal and the majority of the Barony of Westmorland between them. It is during this time, that the two brothers may have been responsible for many of the building projects and alterations that took place at the castle in Kendal. Indeed, it’s also possible, that by 1466 the castle had cost the family so much that William Parr was deeply in debt. He was forced to sell family possessions to raise funds to continue running the castle and his Westmorland estates.

In around 1468, as the Wars of the Roses raged, Edward IV’s fortunes were wavering, and William Parr placed the Barony of Kendal and its possessions including the castle into trust for his sons. The Parrs deserted the North and moved to Leicestershire.

John Parr died in 1475, and his brother William inherited his share of the Barony of Kendal. William now had the whole of the Barony under his control. William moved back to Kendal in 1476, and set about making yet more changes to the castle. At this time, William was becoming more involved in the King’s court, and it wasn’t long before his responsibilities in London caused him to move his household yet again back to the South. He left in 1483 and never returned. This was to be the last time that the head of the Parr family visited their holdings in the North West. The estates and the castle were, from this point on, managed by a steward. William Parr died in 1483, and is buried in Kendal Parish Church. His tomb is rather ingloriously tucked away in a corner and surrounded by chairs.

Above. William Parr's tomb in Kendal Parish Church.

William’s granddaughter, Katherine Parr is undoubtedly the most famous member of the Parr family, and her connection with Kendal is unquestionably strong. However, the local legends that she was born in the castle and lived here are most likely untrue. Katherine was born around 1512, and certainly not in Kendal or the castle. There’s not even any evidence that she even set foot in the castle, and possibly not even in the town itself. Katherine would most likely have been based nearer to London with her family…..and some reports of the time even state that the castle was already falling into a state of disrepair by this time.

Kendal’s connections with King and country extend beyond the ancient Ivo de Tailbois, and even beyond Katherine Parr’s marriage to Henry VIII. In 1553, Katherine’s brother, William, Marquess of Northampton, backed the succession of Lady Jane Grey over that of Mary I to the throne. Lady Jane was executed nine days after her claim, and William Parr was imprisoned until Elizabeth I ascended the throne in 1558.

In 1571, the castle and the Barony of Kendal were passed to the Crown, in return for lands further south. The castle at this point was in an even deeper state of ruin. A survey in 1572 stated that the castle is “all being in decay…..and in all other reparations needful.” A further report of 1575, states that some of the slates had been removed from ruined buildings within the castle walls for safety reasons, and in 1578, the Royal Receiver Edward Bradyll visited the castle. He came away with some bad news on the value of the buildings. In his opinion, the castle was in such a state of disrepair, that is was worth a mere £25 or thereabouts!! He observed that most of the buildings were utterly ruined, that most of the timbers were rotten and fallen and that most of the lead and slate had been stolen. In February 1579, he managed to sell what was left. For the castle buildings, he got the sad sum of £79. For the sale of the remaining timber, iron and glass, he managed to raise another £59, and for the remaining lead a paltry £20. The remains were described as “ready to drop down”. When the castle was next valued, in 1715, it was owned by Sir Lawrence Anderton Bart, and was worth a grand total of £230.

The Barony of Kendal was no more, William Parr being the last person ever to hold the title.

Little is known about the castle through the 17th century. It probably stood over the town, slowly decaying further. A map by John Speed, dated 1610\11 shows the castle, but with some archaeological inconsistencies. The map shows the castle orientated incorrectly, and with eight towers along its walls, whereas the current remains only indicate six. The map depicts the curtain wall as complete and intact, along with the standing towers. Whether this is accurate or not I’m not sure. Thomas Machel’s map, dated 1692, also shows the castle intact….a full curtain wall surrounding standing towers and buildings, including that of the gatehouse which is now all but forgotten.

Above. John Speeds 1610\1611 map showing Kendal.

An engraving of the castle dated 1739, appears to show various aspects of the castle as remarkably intact. The engraving, by the Buck Brothers, shows the hall with some intact windows, the North West round tower with battlements, a turret and windows, the curtain wall running eastwards from this tower is shown as remaining to a great height albeit with some damage at ground level and the South tower is also shown as being fairly intact up to the battlements although fallen masonry is depicted in the foreground. Some of the curtain wall is shown as fallen into the moat, as is a portion of the remains of the gatehouse.

During the 18th century, the castle was used to graze sheep, and at some point a certain amount of landscaping was done to enhance its use as a picnic site. What damage was undoubtedly done one can only imagine, but the castle was probably systematically robbed of stone during this period, for building etc. The castle was regularly used as an exercise ground for the local militia.

Above. Kendal militia in the courtyard of Kendal Castle (from a postcard in my personal collection)

In 1813, work was done to strengthen some of the structure of the castle, and it was at this point that some of the more damaging ‘repairs’ were made. Holes were filled, masonry removed, stones cemented in place, with the result that it has become extremely difficult, in some instances, to see what is ‘real’ archaeology. Trees were planted on the West side of the ditch, and the curtain wall was patched up. Unfortunately, the repairs to the outer face of the curtain wall were completed with stone from the inside. It’s likely that the thinner modern wall was erected on the footings of the original curtain wall at this time. The intentions were undoubtedly good and well meaning, but the castle has probably suffered.

In 1897, the castle was purchased from its last private owners, the Bentinck family by the Kendal Corporation. The grounds of the castle were opened as a public park to celebrate the Diamond jubilee of Queen Victoria. Prior to this new lease of life, the castle’s antiquity seems to have been largely ignored. It was a ruin on the hill, and nothing more. In the late 1930’s, the castle was surveyed as part of the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England….probably the first survey of the site since the late 1570’s!!!
On the 31st of January, 1824, a mass of the curtain wall near the site of the gatehouse fell into the moat.

It wasn’t until the early 1950’s that the castle underwent its first archaeological excavations. Some small scale digs were organised by JE Spence, a local school teacher from Heversham. However, the largest investigations to date were organised between 1967 and 1971, when the gatehouse, the hall block and the curtain wall and moat were excavated in small sections. In 1996 and 1997, portions of the hall block were investigated further, to mark the centenary of it’s acquisition by the council.

So there you have it. The castle has remained pretty much unchanged since the end of the 19th century. A few small repairs have been made here and there, pieces of fallen masonry have been removed over the years, the vegetation has been cut back from the ruins, and access has been improved with the addition of information boards by South Lakeland District Council. The castle has had a pretty unremarkable history, but remains to this day a town’s icon.